Puts and calls are options on securities and are covered by the rules just discussed for options. The following are specific applications of these rules to holders and writers of options that are bought, sold, or “closed out” in transactions on a national securities exchange, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange. (But see Section 1256 Contracts Marked to Market, earlier, for special rules that may apply to nonequity options and dealer equity options.) These rules are also presented in Table 4-1.

Puts and calls are issued by writers (grantors) to holders for cash premiums. They are ended by exercise, closing transaction, or lapse.

A “put option” is the right to sell to the writer, at any time before a specified future date, a stated number of shares at a specified price. Conversely, a “call option” is the right to buy from the writer of the option, at any time before a specified future date, a stated number of shares of stock at a specified price.